statutes, automation, artificial intelligence, maritime navigation, Autonomous ships, remote operation, regulatory framework, artificial intelligence, ma-chine learning, accountability, liability, IMO
The report discusses how Maritime Autonomous Surface Ships (MASSs), ships capable of autono-mous and remote operations, should be regulated. It consists of an introduction and three main chapters.
Chapter 2 introduces MASS technologies, focusing on the sensors, software components, and algo-rithms needed in autonomous navigation systems. The report provides an overview of the role of machine learning models in autonomous navigation systems. These are necessary especially in automating watchkeeping duties and require testing in multiple phases of the system development cycle.
Chapter 3 discusses the existing IMO, EU, and national regulatory frameworks, in the context of MASS trials and pilot deployments in test areas in the Baltic Sea. It also considers how the rules should be changed to facilitate the trials and pilot deployment. It concludes that the current rules will allow MASS trials, provided that they are approved by the authorities. Permanent MASS deploy-ments, however, still require amendments of national and international rules.
Chapter 4 discusses theme 4, outlining the building blocks and challenges of building a future regu-latory framework for MASS commercial deployments. The Chapter focuses on MASS ethics, auton-omous navigation system regulation, and liability and accountability for MASSs.
Chapter 5 provides an executive summary of the main findings